Special Foundations


The Selection of an optimal Fluid Formulation in Special Foundation works depends on factors such as Type of Excavation: Bored Piles, D-Walls / Cut-Off Walls etc. in addition to the Ground Conditions & the Equipment being used for the purpose.

The Functions of the Drilling Fluid in a Deep Foundation Operation:

– Ensure the stability of the excavation during the drilling upto the Concreting Stage.
The formation of an impermeable cake in case of a Bentonite Fluids permits the application of the required hydrostatic pressure to counterbalance the Ground stress arising from earth pressure and the ground water.
The Fluid maintains the cohesion of the soil in the vicinity of the open trench thanks to its yield point that limits the penetration of the drilling mud into the formation.
– The drilling fluid also helps suspend excavated solids, allows the transport and the removal of the cuttings.

Types of Fresh Water Fluid Formulations:

Bentonite Mud System:
The most economical and widely used Fluid Formulation is using a naturally occurring Bentonite Mud as a Drilling Fluid medium. The Rheological properties & formation of an impermeable Mud cake during excavation helps make it a widely accepted Fluid Formulation especially in loose / fractured Ground Formations.

Polymer Mud System:
Among the most recently used Fluid Formulations- a Polymer mud system- either Synthetic or Cellulosic may be proposed in situations where use of a Bentonite system may be deemed unsuitable together with its obvious technical advantages- such as its improved Foundation performance e.g. in Load Testing of B-Piles, and also its Environmental and Operational Benefits e.g. minimal Site Equipment needed.

Bentonite + Polymer Mixed Mud System:
When necessary, a Bentonite or a Polymer Mud System may be recommended to be modified into a Mixed Mud System to suit the Technical requirements of a particular given Site. Expert Supervision and Technical Support is needed to manage such a Mud System.

Contact your S3 Fluids Expert for further assistance.